35 US-INDIA GLOBAL REVIEW JULY-SEPTEMBER 2020 will be behind us. Infectious diseases of this mag- nitude require a combination of factors to come under control. Herd immunity, robust vaccina- tions and targeted medications are necessary to effectively com- bat any acute and active outbreak. Until such measures are in place, we should consider ourselves still vulnerable to secondary and terti- ary waves. Until such measures are available, effective strategies can only be prevention with barrier protection, social distancing, lock- down etc. I sincerely hope that vaccinations and effective drugs will be available by at least early next year. Talk a little bit about what you think India should be doing to curb the spread of Covid? India is suffering through its peak phase of Covid19. This phase is expected to last till at least mid-July. Lockdown is only one component and is completely ineffective if it is not combined with individually responsible social distancing, hand washing and wearing masks. These are the four pillars of Covid control during an acute phase. This methodology is proven in all the countries that have suffered a peak. Isolating elders from younger possible symptomatic carriers in the family is an additional meas- ure that applies to joint family situ- ations in India. Where true social distancing is not practical, it is very important to have open and cross ventilation. This dramatically reduces the time period that the virus will stay airborne in droplets, this reducing transmissability. Partial or complete relaxation of lockdown is totally ineffective and counter productive if it is done city wide at the same time. This will result in crowding at supermarkets and other essential service areas. Lockdowns must be released at different times, in different areas based on zip codes (pin codes) in a given city or town. Vitamin C, D , turmeric and Zinc may have a beneficial effect on the immune system and can be tried. What is your advice for aspir- ing physicians and pilots? With the evolution of technology and social structure, it is impera- tive for the current and coming generations to develop more than one skill to a professional level. Gone are the days of water-tight compartmental qualifications and practice. In order to stay relevant and current in the fast paced cur- rent and future digital society, one needs to be resilient in one’s approach and skill set. So explore and master more than one profes- sion and skill. For pilots and physi- cians, I foresee a closer interac- tion with artificial intelligence based devices to the point of sig- nificant automation of services and skills. Two areas of particular note would be, one, drone technology which will become incorporated into telemedicine, crisis medicine etc. via drone based transport of testing materials, medications, first aid during accidents and in crises intervention, and two, space travel and space medicine will become inseparable as one complements the other. Your contribution to aviation and public service during this crisis has been immense. Talk also about your important contributions to the field of medicine other than surgical practice. In addition to original research and over 100 peer reviewed publi- cations, I think my single most important contribution is to the field of Open Heart surgery and the Heart Lung machine. The dis- posable heart lung machine cir- cuits were expensive, monopo- lized in the market by a couple of manufacturers and required blood transfusions. I, along with my colleague Dr Kevin McCusker, invented and patented a miniaturized heart lung machine circuit which required no blood transfusions and cost a frac- tion of the price of a conventional circuit, and made open heart sur- gery very affordable for the com- mon man. Patenting them and donating them strategically to the public domain allowed several smaller manufacturers worldwide a market lead time to compete with the monopoly, eventually bringing down the market price and increasing affordability. This minia- turized circuit concept is now fully globalized and universally avail- able and affordable. Based on your recent TED talk on ‘Resilience in a Crisis’, what is your advice to the next generation ? Analyze, anticipate and pre- pare. Convert your talents into skills. Rise to the occasion before the occasion arises. That is the best way to be prepared to respond to a crisis. Sujeet Rajan is Executive Editor | Parikh Worldwide Media, based in New York. Email him: