US India Global Review 2018

42 US-INDIA GLOBAL REVIEW APRIL-JUNE 2018 United States or the Arabian Peninsula – were equal to just 2.8% of GDP, making them a just a drop in India’s $2.3 trillion eco- nomic bucket. The countries for which remit- tances are most economically sig- nificant generally share two traits: relatively small economies and relatively large diasporas. Nepal’s GDP in 2016 was just $21.1 bil- lion, ranking it 96th in the world by purchasing power parity. Meanwhile, more than 1.6 million Nepalese were living in other countries in 2015, according to a Pew Research Center analysis. The biggest source countries of remittances to Nepal in 2016 were Qatar, Saudi Arabia, India and the United Arab Emirates. The sheer size of remittance flows means that one country’s immigration policies can have sig- nificant effects on other, more remittance-reliant countries. For instance, the Trump administration recently announced that nearly 200,000 people from El Salvador – who have been allowed to live in the U.S. under the Temporary Protected Status program since the small Central American coun- try was hit by a pair of major earthquakes in 2001 – will have to leave by September 2019. The decision could impact El Salvador’s economy, given that remittances from Salvadorans abroad in 2016 were equivalent to 17.1% of the country’s GDP. More than 90% of the $4.6 billion the country received in remittances came from the estimated 1.42 mil- lion Salvadoran immigrants living in the U.S. Studies have shown that remit- tances can reduce the depth and severity of poverty in developing countries, and that they’re associ- ated with increased household spending on health, education and small business. India’s Outflow of Migrants India’s huge remittances are a reflection also of its outflow of migrants. India is the top source of inter- national migrants, with one-in- twenty migrants worldwide born in India. As of 2015, 15.6 million people born in India were living in other countries. India has been among the world’s top origin countries of migrants since the United Nations started tracking migrant origins in 1990. The num- ber of international Indian migrants has more than doubled over the past 25 years, growing about twice as fast as the world’s total migrant population. Nearly half of India’s migrants are in just three countries, noted Pew: the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and the United States. About 3.5 million Indians live in the UAE, the top destination coun- try for Indian migrants. Over the past two decades, millions of Indians have migrated there to find employment as laborers. Pakistan has the second-largest number of migrants, with 2 million. Almost 2 million more live in the U.S., making up the country’s third-largest immigrant group. Among Indian Americans, nearly nine-in-ten were born in India. As a whole, Indian Americans are among the highest educated and have some of the highest income among racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. Even though the country is the top source of the world’s migrants in total numbers, India has one of the world’s lowest emigration rates. Only about 1% of India’s birth population lives outside of the country, a similar emigration rate to that of the U.S. At more than 1 billion, India’s population is the second-largest in the world behind China. Consequently, it would take tens of millions more people to leave India before its emigration rate reached the world’s 3% average. In an earlier study, Pew noted that religious minorities in India have been more likely to migrate internationally. Religious minorities make up a larger share of India’s international migrant population than they do among the nation’s domestic population, according to 2010 Pew Research Center esti- mates. For example, about 19% of the Indian international migrant popu- lation was Christian, compared with only 3% of the population in India. Similarly, an estimated 27% of the Indian international migrant population was Muslim, compared with 14% of the population in India. The reverse is true for Hindus: Only 45% of India’s inter- national migrant population was Hindu, compared with 80% of the population in India. So, where all did those more than $62 billion dollars come from in 2016? USA is behind UAE United Arab Emirates was even ahead of the US, with a difference of more than $2 billion. UAE trans- ferred a total of $12,575,000,000 to India. The US was second, at $10, 225,000,000. Kuwait was third with more than $4 billion. United Arab Emirates United States Saudi Arabia Kuwait Qatar United Kingdom Oman Nepal Canada Australia Bahrain Sri Lanka ANOIRTRIMMMIMMM ANMISRTIMMMIMMM ANMIOORIMMMIMMM AQINTPIMMMIMMM APITSVIMMMIMMM APIRURIMMMIMMM AOIVRTIMMMIMMM AOITQQIMMMIMMM AOISNTIMMMIMMM ANITSUIMMMIMMM ANIONSIMMMIMMM ANINRNIMMMIMMM Top Countries Sending Remittances to India, in 2016